THE ROLE OF THE NIGERIA POLICE IN THE MAINTENANCE OF PEACE AND SECURITY
I wrote this as a paper but it now looks like a book to me.
Before the advent of the British colonial masters, tribes indigenous to present day Nigeria practiced law enforcement for social order through the means of subcultures with privileged membership, which held sway over political, economic, social and religious matters.
These societies commanded respect and difference through the instrumentality of fear and intimidation. Membership was exclusive and informal. Its first priority was the protection of its image and its members’ interests. Questionable as these motives may sound, it ensured orderly running of society for generations.
The Ekpe was a sophisticated society of sorts with a developed language system based on signs and sounds. Its political authority was unquestionably supreme in the Calabar community, regulating law like the Government of the day. Its jurisdiction was, however, limited to the state of Calabar.
Besides exercising the functions of the three arms of Government, through the enforcement of law, the Ekpe filled the void of a lack of executive staff. Orders and decisions of Ekpe were implemented through agents in the capacity of members or persons disguised as spirits of the community.
With the authority of Ekpe, which derived from the membership of all heads of families (thus granting fair representation in Government), heads of clans as well as the Obong of Calabar, discipline was ensured strict observance and sanctions were enforced with impunity.
Forms of sanctions included: arrest, payment of fines, detention, interdiction, boycott or ostracism. Property was protected at the cost of punishment for defiance by any man who tampered with any estate tied with the Ekpe insignia. For reward it conferred membership or title membership to anyone who achieved an act worthy of honor.
As a medium of inter-group relations, the wide diffusion of Ekpe membership over the Cross River area gave immunity to members and fostered unity. As a caucus of distinguished and influential persons of privilege, its subsistence was preemptive of disruptive political struggles for power and authority, which is characteristic of modern day systems with frequent changes in Governmental power.
In Igboland, Okonkwo was a derivative of Ekpe. Introduced by Arochukwu, the cult penetrated the Bende and evolved modifications. In the eastern and western axis of the Ibibio, existed the most dreaded cult of unparalleled status – the Ekpo. With its centrality on ancestral worship, it meted out extremely violent sanctions for default.
All three societies enjoyed unquestionable authority as the Government of the day. As agents of socialization they forced conformity to social norms and also offered the general public recreational and relaxational performances for occasional entertainment.
Scope and Objective of the Study
The purpose of the present undertaking is to highlight the contributions of the Nigeria Police to the development and coercive running of Government under a democracy. Attempt is also made to show the disparity of functions between pre-colonial and contemporary police structure and system. Improvement of primary purpose and objective of the Police as an institution of enforcement of social justice and as an agent of society for the general good of all, is made most apparent.
Statement of the Problem
With the attainment of independence in 1960, the tide of allegiance shifted loyalties towards home-grown leaders and the society in general, thus redefining devotion around new ideals. The Police force had, over the span of a century, earned itself a reputation as notorious in subservience to the will of the colonial masters at the expense of the loss of respect with natives. The change from white supremacy to black sovereignty had families revoking their vows never to be represented in so obnoxious a force. This, however, was not to be without problems. The crisis of confidence, change of persons in authority, shift in power from the ruling caucus, nepotism, favoritism, tribalism, sectarianism, that were rife, interfered with smooth running of Government obstructing proper appointment of credible persons for job placement and due promotion for deserving staff, by preferential nomination for staff appointment and promotion and dealing summary dismissals to unprotected persons, discredited along trivial personal or tribal sentiments.
Significance of the study
The purpose of this study is to show the relationship and true function of the Nigeria Police to society under a democracy. Also it is suggestive of ways by which the force may be rid of ‘bad eggs’ with minimal consequences. Improving public image of the force is also deemed to be paramount priority.
Methodology of the Study
Systematic operation of the Police is taken in the background of traditional settings. Successive and comparative analysis is made of the force under the colonial masters, military regimes and civilian Governments. Function, purpose, mode of operation and relevance to society to carefully evaluated.
A rule not obeyed is of little consequence, thus, without punitive sanctions, the law would be neglected as fear is a major coercive instrument for regulating order in society. Though others may yet obey the law out of a desire to be law-abiding, the absence of a code of conduct that prescribes expected behavioral patterns and that prohibits stipulated deviant tendencies in society, to which attaches sanctions for default, will amount to mere anarchy. Liability for default is the only hope to keep wrongful acts of social misfits in check and to discourage future deviation of such who ordinarily are law-abiding.
It is the duty of the Police to bring all culprits to book as well as their accomplices. A crime is a wrong which affects the interest of the community in general, for which due punishment is meted as a deterrent. For a crime to fall squarely under Police jurisdiction, it must categorically qualify as a stated act clearly defined as an offence under Nigeria’s municipal law or Constitution or be a prohibited act contrary to acceptable conduct in Nigeria. The consequence of such act is clearly stipulated along with the weigh of sanction and the proper authority to determine the same.
Law is a rule of action prescribed by a superior to which an inferior is bound to obey. A breach of obedience attracts a sanction for the enormity of the offence. Criminal responsibility encapsulates two elements:
(a) the overt act
(b) the guilty mind
To constitute an offence, the overt act must be clearly linked to the guilty mind, which must be proven on a balance of probabilities.
Chapter One makes a general overview of the study of early forms of policing in traditional societies indigenous to Nigeria. It also encapsulates a synopsis of the aim, purpose, format and evaluation of law and offence.
Chapter Two dwells on the origin and historical background of the formal institution of the Police as a force. It follows the progressive development of the force from small militia bands, formed according to necessities that presented themselves. The mergers that forged these small autonomous bands into one amalgamated force were encapsulated in legislation.
Chapter three deals with the role of the Nigeria Police as an agency for social justice, stability and peace, for all classes. Both civil and criminal functions of the Nigeria police are put forward in technical detail.
Chapter four shows the improvement democracy has brought to the enforcement of law. Development of functional methods of regulating law in society is highlighted. It evaluates Police accomplishment of primary purpose so far.
Chapter five offers an analysis of the problems of Police/public relations and suggests ways in which Police image and role can better impact on society. It also presents Police as “the long arm of the law” for enforcement of social justice.
Historical Background of Nigeria police
Long before the British occupation of Nigeria, communities indigenous to Nigeria had evolved authorities and institutions with values that enshrined accountability and transparency through punitive measures. This was effective to regulate society and effectively keep obnoxious activities in check almost to achieve perfect coercion.
Though certainty may not exist as to when natives began to live in nations under some of defined political organization; (as law enforcement has always been a necessary fiber of social regulation for the upkeep of society) when precisely these communities evolved into societies that necessitated law enforcement for maintenance of law and order cannot be too thoroughly ascertained .
Heraclitus held the state to be the direct result of subjugation of the weaker members of society by the stronger. “War” is, therefore, the sole principal factor for state creation, and “force” the means that sustains it in growth into a larger political organization.
The evolution of the state involves the function of variable factors: political, intellectual, and religious. The social dynamics therein involved often downplay the role and importance of the Police who are the backstage workers. Popular assumption holds the seeming harmonious factors of social life to be prone to contradictions with forces that thrive for unity.
The systematic account of the interaction of elements of social life when viewed from closer quarters will reveal a methodical integration with unified treatment of variables—economic, social, political, legal and religious. Both vertical stratification and horizontal morphological categorization reveal a careful balancing of factors of equality of rights and difference of importance. Risk of loss lies heavier with the privileged. With increased risk comes increased liability. The law, therefore, leans in favor of the upper-class of society.
Police allegiance has been consistent—in the direction of the source of power. In each epoch of Nigeria’s history, pre-colonial, colonial and post-independence, the Police served different objects of loyalty.
From the native title chiefs to the occupying suzerain power to the sovereign Nigerian government, the force was faithful to it’s calling to protect the ruling class as a first priority.
Colonial Police Force In Nigeria
The present day Nigeria Police had it’s origin in the Colony of Lagos in 1861. In June of that year, the Consul John Beecroft, the then representative of the British Government sort permission of the Queen to enlist a Consular Guard of thirty men. The request was granted and the name “Consular Guard” was adopted for an operational force for the Colony of Lagos.
Two years later, in 1863, this small guard of thirty men was renamed “Hausa Police”; then consisting an additional enlistment of run away slaves captured at Jebba by Lieutenant Glover R. N, which blew up the number of the corp to six hundred men. In 1879, the force was renamed again “Hausa Constabulary” due to the further enlargement of newly recruits mainly of Hausa origin, which brought the number of the corp to one thousand two hundred men. The command was then headed by an Inspector-General.
Duties of the corp were mainly military, though with a few civil functions. One of such military duties was the provision of a detachment of Two hundred and fifty one men and eight officers for the proclaimed Arochukwu Expedition.
The Lagos Police Force
On the 1st of January, 1896, the Lagos Police Force was created. Just like the Hausa Constabulary, the force was armed. It consisted of a Commissioner, two Assistant Commissioners, a Superintendent, an Assistant Superintendent, a Pay Master and a Quarter Master, a Master Tailor and Two hundred and fifty Other Ranks corp.
The commissioner of police was called a sheriff (i.e. Officer-in-charge of Process.) He was also the Inspector of Weights and Measures and was also in charge of Prisons. This force operated mainly in the Lagos area, while the Hausa Constabulary operated in the hinterland.
The Detective Department
This department was formed in 1898, and consisted of one Superintendent and fourteen Other Ranks corp. From this grew the present branch of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID).
The Fire Brigade
This was formed in 1901 and consisted of a Superintendent, an Engineer and twenty men placed under the command of the Commissioner of Police of the Lagos Force.
The Niger Coast Constabulary
The Oil River Protectorate was declared in 1891, with headquarters in Calabar, where an armed Constabulary was established under the command of British officers. In 1893, the Oil River became the Niger Coast Protectorate and in the following year, 1894, the Niger Coast Constabulary was formed.
It was modeled after the Hausa Constabulary, but with greater emphasis on military rules. It was brought to existence while development was taking place in Lagos and Western Nigeria and was structured mainly for engagement in active service on a major expedition against Benin in 1896.
Southern Nigeria Police
With the proclamation of the Protectorate and Colony of Southern Nigeria in 1900, majority of the men in Niger Coast Constabulary joined the Southern Nigeria Regiment (Army). The remainder of this force, as well as, that of the Lagos Police Force, was absolved into the Southern Nigeria Police Force, which came into existence in 1906.
At the head of its command was an Inspector General of Police who was also responsible for prisons. Southern Nigeria Police duties included the prevention and detection of crime, the repression of external disturbances and the outright defense of the colony and protectorate against eternal aggression.
Royal Niger Constabulary/Northern Nigeria Police
In 1886, the Royal Niger Company set up an armed constabulary in the North, with Headquarters at Lokoja to support its authority and to provide protection for the companies stations along the River Niger. It also kept a mounted company of horsemen then known as “Carroll’s Horse”. This constabulary achieved distinction in Bida and Ilorin. In 1900, it was disbanded with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria and the transfer of administration from the Royal Niger Company to the established political Government of the day. Some ranks were made to join the Northern Nigeria Regiment (Army), while others joined the Northern Nigeria Police, which by 1903 consisted of a Commissioner, twenty nine officers and a hundred Other Ranks corp. In 1914, the establishment had become twenty three officers and one thousand two hundred Other Ranks.
The Nigeria Police Force (Amalgamated)
Until 1930, Northern and Southern Nigeria maintained individual forces that operated separately. On the first of April 1930, the Nigeria Police was formed with Headquarters in Lagos under the command of an Inspector General, Mr. Duncan. In 1937, the title “Inspector General” was changed to “Commissioner”.
With the administrative division of the country into East, West and Northern Regions, the force was likewise divided. In 1947, the post of “Assistant-Commissioner” was created, appointing one in every region. In 1952, with the introduction of the new Constitution (McPherson’s), the Police was again headed by an Inspector-General of Police, Mr. Maclughlan, who was assisted by a Commissioner in charge of each of the three regions, as well as an Assistant Commissioner in the Southern Cameroons.
The Southern Cameroons
Formerly administered as part of Nigeria, after a vote (referendum), in 1961, to join the Cameroons, members of the force were given the option to join the Western Cameroon Police Force in the Cameroon Republic, or return to Nigeria and enlist in one of the forces.
Post Independence Police Force/ Federal Force
Under the Nigeria Independence Constitution, Order-in-Council, the Police was established for the first time as a federal force charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order throughout the federation.
The Constitution also set up two bodies: the Police Council and the Police Service Commission (then known as the Police Force Service Commission.) The former dealt with general problems relating to the force, while the latter was concerned merely with promotions and appointments in the senior cadre.
In December 1960, a detachment of Police, commanded by Mr. L.O.Edet, joined the United Nations peacekeeping force in the Congo Republic, where they gained high reputation for efficiency, which was enjoyed by successive detachments, up until the recent expedition to Yugoslavia. In August 1963, a new region known as the Mid-Western Region was created, necessitating a new command for the region.
The Republican Force
On the 1st of October 1963, Nigeria became a republic. The Force continued to be administered on a Federal basis as was promulgated in the Republican Constitution. On May 27th 1967, Nigeria was divided into twelve states, pursuant to the Military take-over of January 15th 1966 and the aftermath.
The Force followed all necessary adjustments to power change and form of command of the existing Government under a military regime. Conformity to the military junta as a source of superior command was to mar the service for a long time to come. With a Police Area Command in each of the states, commanded by a Commissioner of Police, the job of regulating law and order was continued under limited constrain of military dictation until the Third Republic.
Police As An Agent of Public Order
It is the responsibility of the Police to maintain law and order in society. This may be attained by the use of force where all necessary civil attempts have proven to be abortive. Such instances would include taking an individual who resists arrest or in dispersing an unlawful crowd or assembly.
A person is deemed to be a suspect or defaulter upon reasonable suspicion by an officer of the law, or when he offends by the breach of a law of the land. Police duties under the maintenance of public order, involve both civil and criminal functions. Crimes may be mere attempts or the actual committal of a wrongful act. A person is presumed to be innocent, and abides as such until the contrary is proved in a court of law. Thus, a suspect is deemed to remain a suspect until proven guilt establishes him as a convict by an established court of the land. The law gives preference to none except law officers. The definition of the term “officer”, in the eye of the law, refers to members of the Police force and excludes military personnel who are deemed to be civilians. The law also gives preference to political leaders by the granting of immunities. Such a profound privilege, when abused, proves an unfortunate anomaly to rectify. Crimes could be either violent or political. According to the express grant of constitutional police power, an officer of the law may make an arrest upon reasonable suspicion.
A police officer may search and detain anyone in questionable possession of things believed to be stolen. No exhaustive test exists to provide ambit or grounds for “reasonable suspicion”. Strong inclinations for grounds take careful consideration of the following:
1. Time, place, circumstance and demeanor of suspect.
2. The fact of theft in the area or facts that establish an attempt
3. The type of property conveyed in relationship with status of the bearer.
4. A description that fits that of a wanted person
Carrying a television set in the small hours of the night, within a residential area constitutes sufficient grounds for reasonable doubt of theft. A bearer of an expensive mobile phone, of low status, yet is evidently not a repairer with owner’s consent makes for reasonable suspicion.
When suspicion is established on flimsy grounds tact is expected to be exercised by the officer. A few pointed questions directed to reveal the authenticity of the claim will serve to allay fears or confirm doubt.
Dispersion of Rioters or Other Violent Assembly
In dispersing rioters or other violent assembly, the Police may use “all such force as is reasonably necessary” A mere proclamation of the name of the Federal Republic is the first attempt required towards amiable resolution of impending crisis. Beyond that each partaker is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for five years.
Whosoever may commit acts liable to cause a breach of the peace or disturb public tranquility may be brought before a Magistrate by the Police with the information on a Charge, on Oath. The Magistrate may summons a person to show why he should not be ordered to enter into a recognizance, with or without sureties, for keeping the peace, for such periods as the Magistrate may deem fit. Such a person, however, must be within the state and either himself or the apprehended disturbance must be within the jurisdiction of the Magistrate’s assigned district.
Injury to Public Property
Upon injury, or a design to cause injury to public property, a police officer may, of his own authority interpose to prevent any injury attempted against public property, movable or immovable.
This also applies to attempts to remove or cause injury to any public landmark, or busy or other mark for navigation. An Officer of the law may arrest without order from a Magistrate and without warrant.
Police as an Agent of Crime Prevention
The primary function of the Police is to protect life and property. To ensure proper measures towards safety and crime prevention, duties are divided into smaller areas.
Introduction to Beat Duty
Beat duty is a practical aspect of Police patrol functions. It entails civil functions specifically to ensure crime prevention.
Definition of Beat
A beat is an area or portion of land within an area or city allocated to a Constable to take charge of. He’s made responsible for any occurrence within his shift period.
Kinds of Beat
Beats or circles vary in size according to the strength of the detachment, local conditions and class of property to be protected. There are also different ways of patrolling a given area.
Fixed Route System
By this system, a Constable is detailed to patrol along a given area with a fixed route and to arrive at a definite place at a definite time.
By this system, a Constable is expected to be at a certain place at a certain time, but between the periods of his arrival at these spots, he may patrol his area at his own discretion and need not follow any fixed route or point or be supervised according to time.
By this system, a Constable is expected to patrol his area at his own discretion and need not follow any fixed routes or points or be supervised by time.
This system is name after a town in Scotland and is used where man-power is inadequate. By this system, a patrol car conveys a number of men to a certain part of town. The Constables then leave the vehicle and patrol the area. At an arranged time, they are picked up and conveyed to another part of town, where the same procedure is followed in continuous rounds.
Rules and Methods of Patrolling Beats
1. Beat walks must be executed at two miles per hour.
2. A Constable must be civil and polite to the public.
3. Special vigilance is required at early morning hours.
4. On no account must a constable idle or gossip.
5. Careful attention must be accorded to life and property.
6. Suspicion must be keen while discretion should inform challenge.
7. Special care must be accorded to children and aged.
8. Smart appearance is required at all times.
9. Beats must not be deserted before relief.
10. Drinking or eating is not allowed.
11. Lying, sitting, leaning or sleeping on duty are prohibited
Where a person has twice been convicted of a felony, he may be subjected to Police supervision for a period not exceeding five years.
Police as an Agent of Investigation
In his book ”Criminal Investigation”, Gross states:
“It goes almost without saying, the investigator should
be endowed with all those qualities which every man
should desire to possess: indefatigable zeal(unbeatable
application), self-denial and perseverance, swiftness
in reading men and a thorough knowledge of human
nature, education and an agreeable manner and iron
constitution and an encyclopedia knowledge.“
Points of A Good Investigator
1. A Police officer never forms a pre-conceived theory
2. Lateness may be fatal to evidence
3. The Police pointedly seek to verify truthfulness of a complaint.
4. The investigator must stop, look and think
5. Exhibits are taken, labeled and located.
6. Scientific approach involves the taking of finger-prints.
7. Methodical approach requires no haste.
8. Relevant names and addresses are taken without details.
9. Local enquiries are made.
10. Detailed statements are taken thoroughly.
11. Hearsay evidence is of secondary importance
12. Constant and careful study of a case is required
13. Corrections are admissible to make progress.
14. Advice and guidance is necessary
15. An Investigator is very pro-active and reactive.
Serious cases, generally, require two Investigating Police Officers (IPO). It also requires two or more officers when dealing with cases not directly under Police command (e.g. Investigation in a Military barracks, or an investigation involving a political leader).
Investigation of Murder
Proof of a murder charge, must be established on grounds beyond all other offences. Though it suffices to establish guilt of an offence on a balance of probabilities; in a case of homicide a murder charge must be proven beyond all doubt. Investigation points are:
1. Someone was killed (with evidence of corpse).
2. The deceased was killed by another person
3. Direct or circumstantial evidence exists of intent to kill.
4. Cause of death was medically ascertained
Five questions are to be answered to unravel every mystery of death by murder. They are:
1. How did the deceased meet his/her death?
2. When was he/ she killed?
3. Where was he/she killed?
4. Why was he/ she killed?
5. Who killed him/her?
To achieve these answers, certain indices must be recognized and observed. Relevancy of facts regard:
1. Had the deceased a quarrel with anyone?
2. Had anyone offered threats to the deceased?
3. Was the death resultant of a robbery?
4. Had anyone left the area suddenly afterwards?
5. Was anyone notably absent at the time of the murder?
6. Had anyone been seen with or washing off blood stains?
7. Did anyone stand to benefit in the event of death?
Relevant exhibits constitute anything capable of being used as a weapon in that case. The presumption is that all murders follow a motive, which motive must be unraveled. In examining the body, vital points are:
1. kind of instrument used in the murder
2. Whether the injury was self-inflicted.
3. Whether the blow was left-handed or right-handed.
Marks of violence should reveal struggle, height of assailants, direction of attack, time and suddenness of attack.
Police in Democratic Order
Among many changes the practice of democracy brought to the Police was the shift of authority from a military source to the Inspector General of Police. The status of an “officer” recognized under law as an “Officer of the Law”-- which interprets for a policeman—a status denied the Police under successive military regimes was finally established under a civilian government in 1999. Under this dispensation a military personal bears the status of a civilian under the law and is treated as such by the Police. This has not gone down well with the Military and has had its many consequences (such as the fatality of the Ojuelebga incidence).
The title of “force” which status was denied it by the military was removed in principle in 2002. The “Nigeria police Force” was renamed “Nigeria Police”. The Police was more than compensated by recognition of a claim to a role with direct relevance to the regulatory function of law enforcement in society, a function usurped by the military soon after the departure of the colonial occupying power.
Though detachment of troops are still dispatched to quell serious intertribal clashes and insurgency (such as Udi Community and the Niger Delta crisis), soldiers, though they work side-by-side with the Police, or sometimes replace them entirely, finally recognized the pivotal role of the Police as the Chief Law Enforcement Agency for society. Much restiveness, which is non-political now falls under the jurisdiction of the Police. Time is evolving change.
Early rejection of Police functions at the wake of civilian rule, in 1999, witnessed the upsurge of militant groups of vigilante command. Patrol commands were established without Police approval or recognition. These groups were mainly of cultural and tribal background and were very popular with their host communities. The O’dua in the West, the Bakassi in the East and the Arewa in the North. The use of diabolic fetish to implement their purposes was not beneath their contemplation. Recourse to repugnancy test was not a means to evaluate measures towards social justice with them. Brutal sanctions and crude investigation based on parapsychology constituted equitable means to palliate the predominant social vice of armed robbery and theft, which to them seemed the bane of welfare and security.
Presently, the popularity of those groups long outlived their usefulness as their shortcomings have proved to have a higher opportunity cost on society than the vices they seek to ameliorate. Current intrusions into Police functions include the “illegitimate” establishment of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). Though their establishment may be backed by valid legislation, their functions are ultra vires the Constitution, by duplicating functions of existing Constitutional organs of the Criminal Justice System. The legislation establishing them is viod ab initio, to the extent that its enabling powers, by necessary incidence, usurp Police functions and circumvent the Criminal Justice System as a whole by laws inferior to the Constitution. The duplication of functions are not only without the contemplation of the law, but also are undesirable in principle as they point to the fact that society implicitly and unequivocally recognizes and accepts the fact of inability and complacency on the part of the Police and the Criminal Justice System to address issues of criminal wrongful conduct.
A good constitutional system precludes structures that aid its functional operation by extra-legal machinery superimposed upon established governmental agencies with a view to circumvent their constitutional functions.
The present day Nigeria Police evolved from a corp of men recruited and trained for formal service by colonialists for the purpose of protecting their selfish interests. First, the Royal Niger Company and later an accredited British consul recruited most of these men from captured slaves set free from the north. These men, naturally, owed their unalloyed devotion to the authorities that saved and armed them.
A shift of allegiance, with the turn of independence, was not likely to engender equal loyalty to autochtonous factions of the ruling class, coupled with the fact that the British practice of “divide and rule” had made tribal sentiments more keen.
Successive changes in leadership and forms of government did not do much to help continuity and efficiency. From imperialist to nationalist and then to military regimes in their plethora, saw the Police Force buffet waves of change in a zigzag allegiance in source of command.
Constitutional failures did not leave much blue print to follow for law enforcement. Frequent changes in Government occasioned power struggle and changes in constitution. Contention for positions of preeminence engendered bitter conflict within the political class, which constituted squabbles outside the jurisdiction and handling capability of the Police. Consequential breakdown of law and order in a chain of command from party stalwarts to thugs bastardized social order with many vagaries.
The supervening involvement of military juntas in successive takeovers operated “in a cauldron of necessity to castrate the Police in its ability to maintain public order and regulate social justice.”
Affairs of the ruling class were mostly highly political or tribal matters oftentimes to sensitive to dabble into. Other grave offences involving the use of fetish and diabolic exercise go to question the voracity of societal dogmas.
These all find no definition under stipulated offences within any “Nigeria constitution.”
As a mere participant in the Criminal Justice System, riddled by all the inadequacies of successive constitutions and police power, the Police in its attainment of its observer role, is an umpire of circumstance as a mid-agency of investigation and arrest. Where conviction for an offence is dependent on Criminal Justice system, or the lack thereof, riddled by corruption and favoritism, the ineptitude of insistence upon strict adherence to the law can only cause an overzealous cop his job.